Richard W. Hartel

Richard W. Hartel

Professor, Food Engineering
A13 Babcock Hall
(608) 263-1965
FAX (608) 262-6872

Hartel Lab

Research Interests

Primary area of research encompasses food engineering with a particular emphasis on phase transitions in foods. Crystallization and glass transitions play an important role in determining textural and physical properties of many food products. Understanding these phase transitions is critical to proper design, development and control of many food processes. In particular, our research group studies crystallization of ice (freeze concentration, recrystallization in frozen desserts), sugars (refining, confectionery applications) and lipids (milk fat fractionation, mixed lipid crystallization in chocolates and confections) as well as glass transition events of importance to stability and shelf life of foods. This work involves fundamental understanding of the physical chemistry of these phase transitions, kinetics and applications of this understanding to real products. In general, we apply these principles to food products like ice cream, confections, chocolate and compound coatings, and dairy products.

Recent projects include:

  • Understanding the mechanism of partial coalescence of fat globules and the importance for controlling partial coalescence in ice cream
  • Studying and characterizing the numerous types of bloom that occur in chocolates and compound coatings
  • Characterizing crystallization kinetics of lipids of importance in chocolates and compound coatings, particularly the effects of minor impurities and the catalytic effect of particulate additives
  • Studying the kinetics and mechanisms of ice formation and recrystallization during manufacture and storage of ice cream
  • Understanding the effects of ingredient and process parameters on caramel properties
  • Developing thickened fluids for people with swallowing problems (dysphagia) and understanding what properties of these fluids allow dysphagia sufferers to successfully swallow them.
  • Education

  • B.A. Physics State University College of NY at Potsdam 1972
  • M.S. Agric. Engineering Colorado State University 1976
  • Ph.D. Agric. Engineering Colorado State University 1980
  • Selected Recent Publications

  • Geary, M.R., R.W. Hartel, Crystallization behavior and kinetics of chocolate-lauric fat blends and model systems, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 94, 683-692 (2017).
  • Thiel, A.E., R.W. Hartel, P.T. Spicer, Fat crystals influence methylcellulose stabilization of lipid emulsions, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. Short Comm., 94(2), 325-331 (2017).
  • Dahiya, P., Caggioni, M., Atherton, T.J., deBenedictus, A., Prescott, S.W., Hartel, R.W., Spicer, P.T., Arrested coalescence of viscoelastic droplets: Triplet shape and re-structuring, Soft Matter, 13, 2686-2697 (2017).
  • Amador, J., R.W. Hartel, S.A. Rankin, The Effects of Fat Structures and Serum Phase Viscosity on Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream, J. Food Sci., 82(8), 1851-1860 (2017).
  • Goulart, D., R.W. Hartel, Lactose crystallization in milk protein concentrate and its effects on rheology, J. Food Eng., 212, 97-107 (2017).
  • Hartel, R.W., S.A. Rankin, R.L. Bradley, Jr., Milestones in development of ice cream and frozen desserts, J. Dairy Sci. 100, 10014-10025 (2017).
  • Warren, M.M, R.W. Hartel, Effects of emulsifier, overrun and dasher speed on ice cream microstructure and melting properties, J. Food Sci. 83(3), 639-647 (2018).
  • McGill, J., R.W. Hartel, Investigation into the microstructure, texture and rheological properties of chocolate ganache, J. Food Sci., 83(3), 689-699 (2018).
  • McGill, J., R. Hofberger, RW Hartel. The art and science of ganache, Manufact. Confect., 98(1), 65-70 (2018).
  • Thiel, A., RW Hartel, P Spicer, Under arrest: investigating factors that govern partial coalescence, INFORM, 29(7), 6-11 (2018).
  • Hartel, RW. Engineering Frozen Desserts, Chemical Engineering Progress, 115(50), 39-43 (2019).
  • DeJong, A.E., RW Hartel, Factors impacting sorbitol polymorphism and polymorphic transitions during aging, J. Food Eng., 253, 72-78 (2019).
  • Palmieri, P. RW Hartel, Crystallization of cocoa butter in cocoa powder, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 96, 911-926 (2019).
  • DeJong, A.E., RW Hartel, Impact of shear on crystallization behavior of sorbitol, J. Food Eng. 263, 30-37 (2019).
  • DeJong, A., Payne, K. Hartel, RW, Advances in crystallization. In Reference Module in Food Sciences, pp 1-7, Elsevier (doi: (2019).
  • Van Wees, S, SA Rankin, RW Hartel, The microstructural, melting rheological and sensorial properties of high-overrun ice cream and frozen desserts, J. Texture Studies, 2019, 1-9. DOI: 10.1111/jtxs.12461
  • Chire-Fajardo, G.C., MO Urena-Peralta, SM Garcia-Torres, RW Hartel, Fatty acid profiles and solid fat content of Peruvian cacao for optimal production of trade chocolate, Enfoque UTE, 10(3), 42-54 (2019).
  • Wu, B., D. Friere, RW Hartel, The Effects of overrun, fat destabilization and ice cream mix viscosity on entire melt-down behavior, J Food Sci, 84(9), 2562-2571 (2019) doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14743
  • Tan, J. et al., Interlaboratory measurement of rheological properties of tomato salad dressing, J. Food Sci., 84(11), 3204-3212 (2019) doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.14828
  • Jin, J., RW Hartel, Accelerated fat bloom in chocolate model systems: replacement of cocoa powder with sugar particles and the effects of lecithin, J Am Oil Chem Soc, 97, 377-388 (2020). DOI 10.1002/aocs.12345
  • Thiel, A., TJ Atherton, PT Spicer, RW Hartel, Aggregation in viscoelastic emulsion droplet gels with capillarity-driven rearrangements, Soft Matter, 16, 5506-5513 (2020) DOI: 10.1039/c9sm02134e
  • Caparosa, M, RW Hartel, Characterizing lecithin interactions in chocolate using interfacial properties and rheology, J Am Oil Chem Soc (2020)
  • Wang, R., RW Hartel, Effects of moisture content and saccharide distribution on the stickiness of syrups, J. Food Eng. 284, (2020).
  • Hartel, R.W., Thin-Layer Sugar Crystallization Principles. In Breakfast Cereal: Raw Material, Processing and Production 3rd Ed. (A. Perdon, S. Schonauer, K. Poutanen, Eds) Elsevier, Cambridge, pp. 169-178 (2020).
  • Metin, S. and RW Hartel, Fundamentals of lipid crystallization, in Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 7th Ed. (F. Shahidi, Ed.), Wiley (2020).
  • Burke, J., RW Hartel, Stickiness of sugar syrups with and without particles, J. Food Eng (2021)
  • McGill, G.J., Hartel, RW, Water relations in confections, In: Water Activity in Foods, Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Ed. (G.V. Barbosa-Canovas, A.J. Fontana, S.J. Schmidt, T.P. Labuza, Eds), pp 483-500 Wiley, US (2020).
  • Wang, R., RW Hartel, Caramel stickiness: Effects of composition, rheology, and surface energy, J. Food Eng., 289 (2021).
  • Books

  • Hartel, RW, Crystallization in Foods, Aspen Publ., NY (2001).
  • Hartel, RW and AK Hartel, Food Bites: The Science of Foods, Spring Publ., NY (2008).
  • Hartel, R.W., R.K. Connelly, T.A. Howell and D.B. Hyslop, Math Concepts for Food Engineering, 2nd Ed., Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL (2008).
  • Hartel, RW and C Klawitter, Career Preparation for Food Science, Springer Publ., NY (2008).
  • Hasenhuettl, G.L and R.W. Hartel (eds.), Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications 2nd Edition, Springer Publ, NY (2008).
  • Goff, HD and RW Hartel, Ice Cream, 7th Ed., Springer, NY (2013).
  • Hartel, RW and AK Hartel, Candy Bites: The Science of Sweets, Spring Publ., NY (2014).
  • Hartel, RW, JH von Elbe, R. Hofberger, Confectionery Science and Technology, Springer Publ., NY (2017).
  • Hasenhuettl, G.L and R.W. Hartel (eds.), Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications 3rd Edition, Springer Publ, NY (2019).