Richard W. Hartel

Richard W. Hartel

Professor, Food Engineering
A13 Babcock Hall
(608) 263-1965
FAX (608) 262-6872

Hartel Lab

Research Interests

Primary area of research encompasses food engineering with a particular emphasis on phase transitions in foods. Crystallization and glass transitions play an important role in determining textural and physical properties of many food products. Understanding these phase transitions is critical to proper design, development and control of many food processes. In particular, our research group studies crystallization of ice (freeze concentration, recrystallization in frozen desserts), sugars (refining, confectionery applications) and lipids (milk fat fractionation, mixed lipid crystallization in chocolates and confections) as well as glass transition events of importance to stability and shelf life of foods. This work involves fundamental understanding of the physical chemistry of these phase transitions, kinetics and applications of this understanding to real products. In general, we apply these principles to food products like ice cream, confections, chocolate and compound coatings, and dairy products.

Recent projects include:

  • Understanding the mechanism of partial coalescence of fat globules and the importance for controlling partial coalescence in ice cream
  • Studying and characterizing the numerous types of bloom that occur in chocolates and compound coatings
  • Characterizing crystallization kinetics of lipids of importance in chocolates and compound coatings, particularly the effects of minor impurities and the catalytic effect of particulate additives
  • Studying the kinetics and mechanisms of ice formation and recrystallization during manufacture and storage of ice cream
  • Understanding the effects of ingredient and process parameters on caramel properties
  • Developing thickened fluids for people with swallowing problems (dysphagia) and understanding what properties of these fluids allow dysphagia sufferers to successfully swallow them.
  • Education

  • B.A. Physics State University College of NY at Potsdam 1972
  • M.S. Agric. Engineering Colorado State University 1976
  • Ph.D. Agric. Engineering Colorado State University 1980
  • Selected Recent Publications

  • Wong, S.Y. and RW Hartel, Crystallization in lactose refining – A review, J. Food Sci., 79(3), R257-R272 (2014).
  • Warren, MM, RW Hartel, Structural, compositional and sensorial properties of US commercial ice cream products, J Food Sci., 79(10), E2005-E2013 (2014).
  • Ergun, R, RW Hartel, and P Spicer, Kinetic effects on interfacial partitioning of fat crystals, Food Structure, 5, 1-9 (2015).
  • Daw, E. and RW Hartel, Fat Destabilization and Melt-Down of Ice Creams With Increased Protein Level, Intl Dairy, 43, 33-41 (2015).
  • Miller, E. and RW Hartel, Sugar crystallization in caramel, J Food Eng., 153, 28-38 (2015).
  • Chen, J., CM Nowakowski, D Green, RW Hartel, State behavior and crystal growth kinetics of sucrose and corn syrup mixtures, J. Food Eng. 161, 1-7 (2105).
  • Vickers, Z., Damodhar, H., Grummer, C., Mendenhall, H., Banaszynski, K., Hartel, R, Hind, J., Kaufman, A., Robbins, J., Relationships among rheological, sensory texture, and swallowing pressure measurements of hydrocolloid-thickened fluids, Dysphagia, 30(6):702-13 (2015).
  • Jin, J, RW Hartel, Accelerated fat bloom in chocolate model systems: solid fat content and temperature fluctuation frequency, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 92, 1473-1481 (2015).
  • DeJong, A.E, RW Hartel, Determination of sorbitol crystal content and crystallization rate using TD-NMR, J. Food Eng. 178, 117-123 (2016).
  • Hartel, RW, W Iwaoka, A report from the Higher Education Review Board (HERB): Assessment of undergraduate student learning outcomes in food science, J. Food Sci. Education (2016).
  • Mendenhall, HN, RW Hartel, Protein content affects caramel processing and properties, J. Food Eng. 186, 58-68 (2016).
  • Mendenhall, HN, RW Hartel, Effects of fat content and solid fat content on caramel texture attributes, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 93, 1191-1199 (2016).
  • Levin, M, Burrington, KJ, RW Hartel, Whey Protein Phospholipid Concentrate and Delactosed Permeate: Composition and Functionality, J. Dairy Sci., 99, 6937-6947 (2016).
  • Levin, M, Burrington, KJ, RW Hartel, Whey Protein Phospholipid Concentrate and Delactosed Permeate: Applications in Caramel, Ice Cream, and Cake, J Dairy Sci., 99, 6948-6960 (2016).
  • Thiel, AE, RW Hartel, PT Spicer, KJ Hendrickson, Coalescence behavior of pure and natural fat droplets characterized via micromanipulation, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. 93, 1467-1477 (2016).
  • Hartel, RW, J. Jin, and E. Jaures. Particulate effects on storage bloom in chocolate, Manufacturing Confectioner, 96(3), 59-64 (2016).
  • Eberle, A., H.N. Mendenhall, R.W. Hartel, Protein aggregation in high protein caramel, Manufact. Confect., 96(11), 30-36 (2016).
  • Geary, M.R., R.W. Hartel, Crystallization behavior and kinetics of chocolate-lauric fat blends and model systems, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 94, 683-692 (2017).
  • Thiel, A.E., R.W. Hartel, P.T. Spicer, Fat crystals influence methylcellulose stabilization of lipid emulsions, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc. Short Comm., 94(2), 325-331 (2017).
  • Dahiya, P., Caggioni, M., Atherton, T.J., deBenedictus, A., Prescott, S.W., Hartel, R.W., Spicer, P.T., Arrested coalescence of viscoelastic droplets: Triplet shape and re-structuring, Soft Matter, 13, 2686-2697 (2017).
  • Amador, J., R.W. Hartel, S.A. Rankin, The Effects of Fat Structures and Serum Phase Viscosity on Physical and Sensory Properties of Ice Cream, J. Food Sci., 82(8), 1851-1860 (2017).
  • Goulart, D., R.W. Hartel, Lactose crystallization in milk protein concentrate and its effects on rheology, J. Food Eng., 212, 97-107 (2017).
  • Hartel, RW, Nowakowski, CM, Non-equilibrium states in confectionery, In: Non-Equilibrium States and Glass Transitions in Foods (B Bhamdari, Y Roos, eds), Woodhead Publishing, pp. 283-302 (2017).
  • Books

  • Hartel, RW, Crystallization in Foods, Aspen Publ., NY (2001).
  • Hartel, RW and AK Hartel, Food Bites: The Science of Foods, Spring Publ., NY (2008).
  • Hartel, R.W., R.K. Connelly, T.A. Howell and D.B. Hyslop, Math Concepts for Food Engineering, 2nd Ed., Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL (2008).
  • Hartel, RW and C Klawitter, Career Preparation for Food Science, Springer Publ., NY (2008).
  • Hasenhuettl, G.L and R.W. Hartel (eds.), Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications 2nd Edition, Springer Publ, NY (2008).
  • Goff, HD and RW Hartel, Ice Cream, 7th Ed., Springer, NY (2013).
  • Hartel, RW and AK Hartel, Candy Bites: The Science of Sweets, Spring Publ., NY (2014).
  • Hartel, RW, JH von Elbe, R. Hofberger, Confectionery Science and Technology, Springer Publ., NY (2017).