Richard W. Hartel

Richard W. Hartel

Professor, Food Engineering
A13 Babcock Hall
(608) 263-1965
FAX (608) 262-6872

Research Interests

Primary area of research encompasses food engineering with a particular emphasis on phase transitions in foods. Crystallization and glass transitions play an important role in determining textural and physical properties of many food products. Understanding these phase transitions is critical to proper design, development and control of many food processes. In particular, our research group studies crystallization of ice (freeze concentration, recrystallization in frozen desserts), sugars (refining, confectionery applications) and lipids (milk fat fractionation, mixed lipid crystallization in chocolates and confections) as well as glass transition events of importance to stability and shelf life of foods. This work involves fundamental understanding of the physical chemistry of these phase transitions, kinetics and applications of this understanding to real products. In general, we apply these principles to food products like ice cream, confections, chocolate and compound coatings, and dairy products.

Recent projects include:

  • Understanding the mechanism of partial coalescence of fat globules and the importance for controlling partial coalescence in ice cream
  • Studying and characterizing the numerous types of bloom that occur in chocolates and compound coatings
  • Characterizing crystallization kinetics of lipids of importance in chocolates and compound coatings, particularly the effects of minor impurities and the catalytic effect of particulate additives
  • Studying the kinetics and mechanisms of ice formation and recrystallization during manufacture and storage of ice cream
  • Understanding the effects of ingredient and process parameters on caramel properties
  • Developing thickened fluids for people with swallowing problems (dysphagia) and understanding what properties of these fluids allow dysphagia sufferers to successfully swallow them.
  • Education

  • B.A. Physics State University College of NY at Potsdam 1972
  • M.S. Agric. Engineering Colorado State University 1976
  • Ph.D. Agric. Engineering Colorado State University 1980
  • Selected Publications

    Pawar, A.B., Caggioni, M., Ergun, R., Hartel, RW, Spicer, PT, Arrested coalescence in Pickering emulsions, Soft Matter (in press).

    Cook, KLK and RW Hartel, Effect of freezing temperature and warming rate on dendrite break-up when freezing ice cream mix, Int. Dairy J. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.idairyj.2011.01.007.

    Hartel, R.W., R. Ergun, S. Vogel, Phase/State Transition in Sugars, Comprehensive Reviews Food Science, 10(1), 17-32 (2011).

    Wong, S.Y., R.K. Bund, R.K. Connelly and R.W. Hartel, Modeling the crystallization kinetics of lactose via artificial neural network, Crystal Growth and Design, 10(6), 2620-2628 (2010).

    Frazier, A. and Hartel, R.W. Chocolate Chips in Cookies Do Not Bloom, Manufacturing Confectioner, 90(6), 69--74 (2010).

    Wong, S.Y., Connelly, R.K., R.W. Hartel, Simulations in food engineering using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), J. Food Sci. Education, 9(4), 90-97 (2010).

    Cook, K.L.K. and R.W. Hartel, Mechanisms of ice formation in ice cream production, Comprehensive Reviews Food Science, 9(2), 213-222) (2010).

    Ergun, R., Lietha, R. and RW Hartel, Moisture and Shelf Life in Confections, Critical Reviews Food Science Nutrition, 50(2) 162-192 (2010).

    Kinta, Y., RW Hartel, Bloom on under-tempered chocolate, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 87(1), 19-27 (2010).

    Bund, R, RW Hartel, Effect of protein on sorption/desorption characteristics of delactosed permeate, J. Food Eng., 96, 388-393 (2010).

    Liang, B, R. Bund and RW Hartel, Effect of composition on moisture sorption of delactosed permeate, International Dairy J., 19, 630-636 (2009).

    Shi, Y., B. Liang and RW Hartel, Correlation of rheological and microstructural properties in a model lipid system, J. Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 85(5), 397-404 (2008).

    Hartel, R.W., R. Lietha, R. Bund, B. Liang and L. Yu, Free Volume: Moisture Migration into Sugar Glasses, Manufacturing Confectioner, 88(8), 65-71 (2008).

    Herrera, M.L., M Cann, J.I., Ferrero, C., Hagiwara, T., Zaritzky, N.E., and R.W. Hartel, Thermal, Mechanical, and Molecular Relaxation Properties of Stabilized Frozen Sucrose and Fructose Solutions, Food Biophysics, 2(1), 20-28 (2007).

    Liang, B., Shi, Y. and R.W. Hartel, One-Dimensional Moisture Penetration into Sugar Glasses: Quantitative Mapping by FT-NIR Microspectroscopy, Food Biophysics, 2(2-3), 93-99 (2007).

    Hartel, R.W. The Fudge Factor: The Mind of a Candy Engineer, Manufacturing Confectioner, 87(12), 43-49 (2007).

    Hagiwara, T., Hartel, R.W. and S. Matsukawa, Relationship between recrystallization rate of ice crystals in sugar solutions and water mobility in freeze-concentrated matrix, Food Biophysics, 1(2), 74-82 (2006).

    Zhou, Y. and R.W. Hartel, Phase Behavior of Model Lipid Systems: Solubility of High-Melting Fats in Low-Melting Fats, J AOCS, 83(6), 505-511 (2006).

    Metin, S. and R.W. Hartel, Crystallization of Fats, in Baileys Fats and Oils, (F. Shahidi, Ed.), Wiley, NY (2005).


    Hartel, RW, Crystallization in Foods, Aspen Publ., NY (2001).

    Marshall, R., H.D. Goff and R.W. Hartel, Ice Cream, 6th Ed., Kluwer, New York (2003).

    Hartel, RW and AK Hartel, Food Bites: The Science of Foods, Spring Publ., NY (2008).

    Hartel, R.W., R.K. Connelly, T.A. Howell and D.B. Hyslop, Math Concepts for Food Engineering, 2nd Ed., Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, FL (2008).

    Hartel, RW and C Klawitter, Career Preparation for Food Science, Springer Publ., NY (2008).

    Hasenhuettl, G.L and R.W. Hartel (eds.), Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications 2nd Edition, Springer Publ, NY (2008).